Types of Book Binding
In my self publishing adventures over the years, I've tried just about every type of book binding option available. All I can say is, "Thank goodness for today's Print On Demand technologies!"
A book's binding can determine its future sales. Some bindings are completely unacceptable in retail markets. Others may be appropriate for specialty or niche markets, depending on the book's topic and intended use.
Here is a review of the primary book binding types, with a discussion of the pros and cons of each for self publishers, and videos illustrating their commercial production.
Case Bound or Hardcover Book Binding
Case binding, also known as hardcover, is the top of the line in the book binding arena. While in times past, it may have been the primary method for printing and packaging books, today it is optional... and an expensive choice. As such, it is often reserved for titles which can command higher prices and have high or long-lasting value.
Case binding is a multi-step process that involves printing the pages, manufacturing the cover and then assembling the pages and cover together. The interior pages of the book are printed and organized into small groups of pages, called signatures. The signatures are then placed in order into a book block which is glued to the spine and then assembled onto the cover. Signatures are used to give the spine of the book some flexibility so that it could lay flat when opened.
Typically, a dust jacket—a paper wrapping that covers the front, back and spine and whose ends fold into the front and back covers—is used, not only to protect the book, but to promote it, too. The jacket usually has an eyecatching front cover (great opportunity for branding!), a description or highlights for the book, and the author's biography and photo.
- A case bound hardcover book is an impressive presentation for a book! Because of its high cost, it can suggest high value and could command higher prices.
- Expense is the biggest drawback for self publishers when it comes to publishing a hardcover edition for their books. The net cost can be several times the cost of its perfect bound cousin (discussed below). High minimum order quantity is usually required to justify the pre-production and manufacturing costs for both the publisher and printer.
- Case bound books can be heavier than binding methods, thus requiring additional shipping costs.
Case Binding Example (DIY Version)
Perfect Bound Book Binding
While in some respects it is similar to hardcovers in terms of manufacture, perfect bound book binding is significantly less expensive. Perfect bound covers are usually made of heavier weight cardstock paper and are often laminated or coated to protect the book. Because the cover is made of paper and is flexible, it is also often referred to as softcover.
Like hardcover books, perfect bound interior pages are printed, organized into a book block and glued to the spine of the book. However, perfect bound spines are not separate pieces from the cover as with case bound.
- Economical alternative to hardcover that still is an impressive presentation.
- Provides savings in shipping costs due to lighter weight covers than case bound hardcovers.
- Economical choice for titles that may have a shorter lifespan due to the subject matter, but still require a professional presentation package (e.g., technology).
- While perfect binding reduces expense, it also reduces the inner (gutter) margins of the book to allow for gluing pages to the spine, thereby reducing the amount of text that can appear on each page and requiring care in printing layout.
- Though a very durable binding method, it has a shorter lifespan due to wear on a paper-based cover and minimal protection of interior pages.
- Does not lay flat when opened due to gluing of cover to spine of book block.
Perfect Binding Example
Print On Demand (POD) Perfect Bound Book Binding
The introduction of Print On Demand (POD) equipment and technology has offered self publishers the opportunity to purchase short runs of perfect bound books at a reasonable cost. What is produced is a perfect bound book almost indistinguishable from one printed in a much longer commercially printed run. Sometimes the minimum quantity order is as low as one book!
POD technologies have helped independent ("indie") and self publishing compete with books from traditional publishing houses.
- Self publishers can now produce a retail-quality book in low quantities and lower cost. Click here to learn about self publishing a book for almost free on Createspace.
- Same advantages as noted earlier for traditionally printed perfect bound books.
- As for standard perfect bound book production, properly laying out the interior and cover for production can be challenging. However, many self publishing platforms (e.g., Createspace by Amazon) offer helpful tools and templates to address these concerns.
- Same disadvantages as noted earlier for traditionally printed perfect bound books.
Print on Demand Example
Saddle Stitch Binding
For books that are shorter in terms of number of pages, or that might have limited or short term use, saddle stitch binding provides an economical alternative. The "stitching" is commonly done with metal staples in commercial printing operations.
Once the pages are printed, they are organized, stacked and loaded onto a conveyor to enter the stitching and trimming process. The way they are loaded onto the conveyor makes the books look like saddles, thus the name for the binding process.
Saddle stitching binding can be done with or without a cover. It is commonly used for brochures and other marketing materials. (Click here to learn more about brochure printing for business.) In the retail arena, it is frequently used for calendars, magazines, children's titles (such as coloring books) and educational workbooks.
- Economical production is the greatest benefit that saddle stitching offers.
- Has the ability to lay flat when opened.
- Laying out artwork can be a bit tricky. Margins for the center pages of the book will not necessarily be the same as for the outer pages. While the thickness of a sheet of paper can seem insignificant, when grouped together and folded, the nesting of the pages within one another can shift margins in an obvious way. Thus saddle stitching is not recommended for books of hundreds of pages.
- Because it is a less durable binding method, the book's pages and covers can be easily damaged, reducing the lifespan of the work.
- Usually not popular for retail book sales except for specialty titles such as calendars, magazines and workbooks.
Saddle Stitching Example
Comb Binding Example
Spiral Binding Example
Thermal Binding Example
Comb, Spiral and Thermal Bound Books
Long before Print On Demand technologies made the scene, self publishers had few options for short run books. Therefore, many turned to comb, spiral and thermal bound books, using either a small desktop unit or having them done at a local print & copy shop. Unfortunately, because the appearance of the finished product was so different from that of books sold in retail, it often screamed "self publishing" and could have a difficult time making its way into standard book distribution channels and retail outlets. However, both comb and spiral books are still used for books such as educational workbooks and cookbooks due to their lower expense and ability to lay flat. Thermal binding is also still used for such published works as reports and proposals.
Comb Binding. As the name suggests, the binding looks like a comb and is threaded through holes punched into an edge of the book, usually the left edge, although occasionally the top is used for specialty publishing such as calendars.
Spiral Binding. Similar to comb binding except that instead of a comb, a metal or plastic coil is threaded through the holes in the edge of a book.
Thermal Binding. This binding method punches no holes in the paper. Like perfect binding, the pages of the book are glued to a spine through the application of heat to the pre-glued cover's spine.
- For extremely short run books, these one-off type binding methods may be the only option available if not using Print On Demand technologies.
- Lower expense due to low or no minimum order quantity.
- Usually not an acceptable or durable binding option for standard distribution and retail channels. So the book may need to be sold direct to customers which may be costly and ineffective.
- Purchasing desktop binding equipment and supplies can be expensive.
- Screams "self published!"
No paper. No expensive production. No problem? Ebooks have eliminated all the physical book binding production and expense, especially for self publishers. As more people turn to their electronic devices to consume content, ebooks seem like a natural evolution for books.
However, ebooks are not without book "binding" challenges. Formatting is critical for them to be readable and usable on an electronic or mobile device.
- Expense is negligible, sometimes even zero, except for the author's and publisher's time and effort.
- Meets growing demand for content on electronic and mobile devices.
- Except for the writing, ebooks can be produced and published quickly, sometimes even within hours.
- Due to their low cost to produce and since almost anyone with a computer or Internet connection can produce one, ebooks may not have the same value in buyers' minds.
- Formatting that needs to be translated for electronic and mobile devices can be challenging. However, self publishing platforms, such as Amazon's Kindle Direct Publishing (KDP), often provide tips, document conversion and automated format review of uploaded manuscripts.
Disclaimer: Any examples used are for illustrative purposes only and do not suggest affiliation or endorsement. The author/publisher has used best efforts in preparation of this article. No representations or warranties for its contents, either expressed or implied, are offered or allowed and all parties disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for your particular purpose. The advice, strategies and recommendations presented herein may not be suitable for you, your situation or business. Consult with a professional adviser where and when appropriate. The author/publisher shall not be liable for any loss of profit or any other damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. So by reading and using this information, you accept this risk.
© 2015 Heidi Thorne