The Day They Burned the Books: Values, Identity, and Otherness

Jean Rhys, author of "The Day they Burned the Books"
Jean Rhys, author of "The Day they Burned the Books" | Source

“‘You don’t like strawberries? ‘No, and I don’t like daffodils either.’

- Jean Rhys, “The Day They Burned the Books

The Dominican author Jean Rhys was fathered by a Welsh doctor and a Creole mother in the Caribbean during the early 20th century (Bozzini, Leenerts, p. 145). At the age of sixteen, she lived in Great Britain, and later she married a Dutch poet and lived in Paris and Vienna for approximately 10 years. Rhys’ cultural background seeps into her stories and beckons forth depictions of her early childhood cultural values, methods of creating identity or autonomy, and unique social constructs of otherness. In Rhys’ short story “The Day They Burned the Books” a cultural tension arises between western and Caribbean values, identity, and otherness that were personally relevant to Rhys’ early life growing up as a ‘colonial,’ or half-white half-colored person.

Jean Rhys
Jean Rhys | Source

Eddie's Mixed Race

In Rhys’ story, a little British boy, Eddie, is in a unique position in his Caribbean residence. His father Mr. Sawyer is an educated British man who loathed the Caribbean islands. His mother-like servant Mildred, however, is an educated colored woman who grew up in the Caribbean and embodied her cultural ideals. These ideals contrasted greatly with Mr. Sawyer’s Western ways of thinking which ultimately resulted in a tense and hateful relationship between them. Even so, simply from examining the creation of the character’s unique situations, it is quite clear that Rhys’ was drawing off of her own cultural experiences to contribute to the story because she also was born from ‘mixed race’ parents in the Dominican.

Clashing Cultures

Rhys must have seen first-hand the tensions between Western culture and Caribbean culture. These tensions between concepts are exemplified through her writing. For instance, while Mildred has a general distaste towards books, Mr. Sawyer gravitates and hoards them. Ultimately, the tension here is caused by a misunderstanding of what books stand for. To Mildred, books are a symbol or reminder of their Western oppressors. To Mr. Sawyer, books are a symbol of the ‘Homeland’ and the Western world. This distinction carries itself with significant weigh throughout the short story.

Jean Rhys
Jean Rhys | Source

Cultural Heritage and Acculturation

Before Mr. Sawyer’s death, Eddie seemed to identify himself with his Mildred’s Caribbean roots. For instance, Eddie makes this clear during a conversation with the narrator:

‘I don’t like strawberries,’ Eddie said on one occasion.

‘You don’t like strawberries?’

“No, and I don’t like daffodils either. Dad’s always going on about them. He says they lick the flowers here into a cocked hat and I bet that’s a lie.’ (Bozzini, Leenerts, p. 147)

However, despite his cultural adaption to the Caribbean, following his father’s death, Eddie began to gravitate towards books and identify himself with his father. Thus, while Eddie viewed books as a symbol or reminder of his father, Mr. Sawyer’s library also became an emblem for British nationality and Western culture within their Caribbean house; this was object of identification that was incompatible with Mildred’s culture. Perhaps she felt this way because she felt as if the books, like Britain, would infiltrate into the household, into the families’ consciousness, into their Caribbean ways of life, threatens the community of the colonials, and ultimately taint Eddie’s identification with her cultural heritage in favor of their oppressors.

Jean Rhys
Jean Rhys

Multicultural Self-Identity

By the conclusion of Rhys’ short story Eddie identifies himself with his father hence the quote: “He was white as a ghost in his sailor suit, a blue-white even in the setting sun, and his father’s sneer was clamped on his face” (Bozzini, Leenerts, p. 149). Thus, after Eddie’s active act of defiance in opposition of Mildred's act of burning his father’s books, Eddie becomes symbolically all-white or all-western. Thus, while Eddie identifies himself with British culture, he also now is subjected to view himself as a minority in the Caribbean. This idea is exemplified in a conversation between Eddie and the narrator, “‘Who’s white? Damned few’” (Bozzini, Leenerts, p. 149).

A Reader-Response

While I cannot personally relate to Rhys’ Creole characters or even fully understand Caribbean culture, I can empathize with them. My family tree has a branch of Native American in it, and from my understanding of Native American culture, I can understand how Mildred would burn Mr. Sawyer’s books; an act of rebellion through civil disobedience and cultural intolerance is a power tool to avoid conformism. The Native American’s fought off the oppressive ways of Western culture and dogged Americanism for a long time; there is still a bad taste in most Native’s mouths over the many American exploitations of their culture.

Even so, I can also relate to Rhys’ British characters perhaps even more strongly. I grew up in the United States, became accustomed to Western culture, and always had an intense passion for books. During my first reading I was naturally appalled at Mildred for burning Mr. Sawyer’s books. I felt pity for Eddie because thought about how much books have changed my life and Eddie was going to miss out on that learning and growing experience. After a second reading, I began to understand Mildred’s perspective. Even so, however, I still identified most with Eddie and his father. How about you, and why?



Bozzini, G. R., Leenerts, C. A. (2001). Literature without borders: International literature in English for student writers. The day they burned the books. (ed. 1, pp. 145, 147, & 149) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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Comments 4 comments

Emese Fromm profile image

Emese Fromm 13 months ago from The Desert

Interesting hub. While I never read the short story you are referring to, now I feel like I will have to. I created a mixed culture in my family, I'm not so sure how my kids feel about it, though under no circumstances woul I agree with any character, real or fictitious, who would burn a book. I would probably understand the underlying issues, however, burning books, in my opinion, is never an answer to anything. Thanks for sharing your thoughts about this story.

ladyguitarpicker profile image

ladyguitarpicker 13 months ago from 3460NW 50 St Bell, Fl32619

Hi Brandon, this sounds like a very interesting story. I think most cultural differences could add stress to any family. I believe the old Italian way, don't mix culture, marry your own guts. Nice hub, Stella

lambservant profile image

lambservant 13 months ago from Pacific Northwest

Great review of this book. I am definetly going to read this book.

rebelogilbert profile image

rebelogilbert 12 months ago from Hacienda Heights, California

Interesting Hub Brandon, it's terrible to deprive a kid of education. But Mildred burning books makes the short story stick out.

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