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Psalm 23: A Sheep's Testimony

Rev. Margaret Minnicks is an ordained Bible teacher. She writes many articles that are Bible lessons.


Almost everyone knows Psalm 23. Even non-Christians have heard it because it seems to be a favorite at funerals, weddings, and other religious events. It is a psalm of life, rest, and peace. It is a psalm that heals, delivers, comforts, and set free. For something 3,000 years old, it is extremely relevant for our lives today.

Psalm 23 is the best known and most popular of all the psalms. Many people know this psalm by heart. The psalm of only six verses could be divided into two sections.

  • The first explores the image of God as Shepherd, guiding, and caring for his sheep.
  • The second section is the image of the sheep talking to the shepherd.

In order to understand Psalm 23, you must know that Psalm 23 is really the testimony of the sheep. David speaks of the relationship of the shepherd to his sheep. The psalm lists all the benefits that the sheep receive from the shepherd. As we go through this short psalm of 6 verses and 117 words, think of yourself as a sheep with the Lord as your shepherd.

Three things you should know.

  • You must know something about the shepherd.
  • You must know something about sheep.
  • You must travel along with the sheep in the green pasture, in the valley of the shadow of death, and finally in the house of the Lord.

Verse 1: Testimony of Sufficiency

“The Lord is my Shepherd I shall not want.”

This is a Testimony of Sufficiency. The sheep do not worry because they know the shepherd will provide everything they need. A good shepherd is personally concerned with the welfare of his sheep.

Verse 2: Testimony of Satisfaction

“He maketh me to lie down in green pastures. He leadeth me beside the still waters.”

This is a Testimony of Satisfaction of having green pastures to lie down and rest. For those who don't know, sheep must be made to lie down in green pastures. Otherwise, they would fall asleep while standing up.

Sheep do not like to drink gurgling water. Therefore, the shepherd takes them by still waters so they can satisfy their thirst.

The combination of green pastures and still waters portrays God’s refreshing care for His own.

Verse 3: Testimony of Sovereignty

“He restoreth my soul, He leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for His name’s sake.”

This is a Testimony of Sovereignty. Sheep are not very smart. They have a predictable inclination to lose their way. They can be in a pasture with plenty of grass and still wander aimlessly until they have nothing to eat or drink. Once lost, they can’t find their way back. Many animals seem to have inborn compasses. However, that is not so with sheep. Once lost, the shepherds must go and find them.

Even after the shepherd had restored the sheep, he is not finished. Since sheep have poor eyesight, they must stay close to the shepherd so they can observe him and listen so they can obey him. Sheep cannot see more than fifteen yards ahead, so they need to be led in the right path.


Verse 4: Testimony of Security

“Yea though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil for Thou art with me."

This is a Testimony of Security. After being restored, there must be a shepherd to guide the sheep through the valley. He uses two items for security.

"Thy rod and Thy staff they comfort me.”

  1. The rod is used as protection against the wild animals but also used as a means to discipline the stubborn sheep and to keep them from danger. The rod was also used to count and inspect the sheep. Because of their long wool, it was not always easy to detect disease, wounds, or defects in the sheep, but the shepherd would take his rod and part the sheep’s wool to determine the condition of the skin.
  2. The shepherd uses the staff around the neck of a large sheep or around the body of a little lamb to draw the sheep to him, to guide the sheep, or to lift sheep that have fallen or about to fall off the cliff.

Verse 5: Testimony of Safety

This is a Testimony of Safety. This is where the psalm changes from the sheep speaking about the shepherd in the third person to speaking directly to the shepherd.

“Thou preparest a table...”

Full sheep are happy sheep, but the sheep must have a tableland prepared for them because of their enemies. The shepherd prepares a table, but it is not a table with four legs like we use when we eat. The shepherd makes a square with his rod on one side, his staff on the other side, his coat at the bottom, and he himself would lie down to sleep with the sheep; thus making a table for the sheep to be protected from enemies.

Thou anointest my head with oil...”

As each sheep passes by in a single file, the Shepherd quickly examines it for briers in the eyes, snags in the cheek, or scratches. The shepherd would rub oil on a sheep’s cuts and scrapes and also into its ears and around its eyes to keep flies and bugs away.


“My cup runneth over.”

A shepherd uses a large cup. It is always overflowing so the sheep could sink its face into the water to clear his eyes and to drink until refreshed.

Verse 6: Testimony of Surety

As we come to the end of Psalm 23, we are given some great news. It is the Sheep’s Testimony of Surety.

“Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life."

Everyone knows about God’s goodness is His provision for good times, and His mercy is His provision for bad times. Goodness takes care of our steps and mercy takes care of our stumbles.

"And I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever.

The word “dwell” means to settle down and be at home. The “house of the Lord” is a state of constant joy; with no more sorrow and no more separation. It will be for eternity.

If the Lord is your shepherd, you will dwell in the house of the Lord eternally, forever, forevermore, and as long as you live. God’s love, care, protection, and provision are not seasonal, but all the days of your life.

Broadcast of Psalm 23

  • Psalm 23: A Sheep's Testimony
    Hear the explanation of Psalm 23 like you have never hear it explained before. Listen to Rev. Margaret Minnicks as she creatively explains Psalm 23 from the viewpoint of the sheep. Jan 12 2011

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