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The Troubling Implications of the Book of Joshua

Anna is a pastor, writer, and theologian who obtained her BA in religion in '06, Diploma of Ministry in '16, and Diploma of Divinity in '17.

The Lord Delivers Victory

The Book of Joshua covers a seven year period, taking place after the Israelites had wandered the desert for forty years. Moses was dead, the original Jews who had fled Egypt were dead. This new and improved generation of Israelites were the ones who would enter the Promised Land. They had decided to place their trust in God. In the Book of Joshua, we see none of the grumbling and open rebellion that we witnessed in the Book of Numbers. In this book, we see hope and faith played out. The Israelites trust in God and are rewarded with success. Because of their faith, they finally got to enter the Promised Land.

The Israelites entered the Promised Land with the Book of the Law handed down to Moses and still in record 6,000 years later. Imagine starting a new life; we’ve all done it. The excitement we’ve felt when we went off to college, or started a new career, or moved into a new house with your new spouse. You get butterflies in your stomach, and you’re filled with the excitement of a new life stretched out before you. Every page is a blank one, just waiting to be filled. When we begin a new venture, we hope for and dream of success. But it’s not guaranteed. As often as not we fail, sometimes these failures are mere blips in the road, other times they’re catastrophic. We’re not promised success in life and that’s okay.

Perhaps that’s one thing that separates us from the ancient Israelites. We’re not guaranteed success, but they were. Joshua 1:6-9: “Be strong and courageous, because you will lead these people to inherit the land I swore to their forefathers to give to them. Be strong and very courageous. Be careful to obey all the law my servant Moses gave you; do not turn from it to the right or to the left, that you may be successful wherever you go. Do not let the Book of the Law depart from your mouth; meditate on it day and night, so that you may be careful to do everything written in it. Then you will be prosperous and successful. Have I not commanded you? Be strong and courageous. Do not be terrified; do not be discouraged, for the Lord your God will be with you wherever you go.”

This was no idle promise. The Israelites had witnessed countless miracles in the desert. God had given them food from heaven to sustain them and water from a rock, He led them by day and by night through the harsh and unforgiving wilderness. There were no atheists after that, anyone who went against God was in open rebellion. In this new generation, they carried with them God’s promise of success. And succeed they did! They marched into Jericho and after seven years of fighting, the Jews conquered Jericho and divided up the land between the twelve tribes. The Jews were the conquering heroes and they all lived happily ever after*.

On the surface it’s a nice clean story. God promised Abraham that he would be the father of a great nation. God fulfilled that promise when he handed the Jews the land flowing with milk and honey. They finally had their Promised Land, all they had to do from there on out was remain faithful. The good guys won. Everything was going to be roses from there on out.

Can Unholy War Be Holy?

It is a nice and neat story-- provided that no one asks any follow up questions. Questions can be messy and a deeper look at the story can be unsettling. The land the Israelites took wasn’t uninhabited, the Israelites took it from an existing nation. That is a disturbing thought. That may why some people avoid asking those questions. It can get very uncomfortable. “Did God really order a bloody military campaign that demanded the slaughter of millions of people including their livestock?” Why not just kill the soldiers who enlisted (or were conscripted) to fight? Why kill innocent men, women, children, and infants? Why God, why on earth did you order them to kill the livestock? Kill the bad guys--fine, but the children? Surely the infants and the donkeys were innocent!

Joshua 6:21 paints an ugly picture, “They devoted the city to the Lord and destroyed every living thing in it—men and women, young and old, cattle, sheep, and donkeys.” If a nation today was to invade another country, commit mass genocide, then kill all the farm animals and family pets, and then declare that God ordered them to do it, the United Nations would declare war crimes. There would be condemnation from almost every other country on earth. Religious people would cry blasphemy that a nation would use God as an excuse to slaughter innocent people. Other countries would impose sanctions and may even attack the invading country. We don’t get to just go around taking human life and then declare “God made me do it.”

So, what happened in Joshua? The way I see it there are three main possible answers.**

1) God did it. God orchestrated the destruction of Jericho with direct orders to kill every living thing.

2) God had nothing to do with it and the Jews invaded another nation of their own volition.

3) The Israelites mistakenly believed that God ordered the slaughter.


God Was Behind the Slaughter

Let us examine the first option: God did it. This involves questions of theodicy and morality. Can a just God allow the slaughter of a nation, and if so, is He really a just God?

The truth is, God sees the entire picture. He knows what is in our hearts, He knows the past, the present, and the future. We look at heaven and earth and God through a fuzzy window. One caked with fingerprints and filth. However, it’s the only window that we have ever looked through and so we don’t know the difference. People who get glasses after many months or years of vision impairment are often shocked at how clear they suddenly see the world. As humans we’re stuck with 20/60 vision, we can’t see what God sees.

In life, arrogance and ignorance go hand in hand. In spiritual matters, this maxim holds true. We can’t see what God sees; but rather than admit our ignorance on universal affairs, we arrogantly claim that we know better than God. “A just God would never allow such-and-so” we arrogantly cry “therefore, God must not be just!”

To understand why God might have ordered the slaughter of innocent Jerichites we can look at both the Bible and archeology. As we dig deeper we can see that the Jerichites (and Canaanites) were not “innocent” people. The Israelites wandered the desert for forty years. That’s a really long time. God knows all, He knew that the Canaanites were sinning, and that their sins would grow worse. God is merciful, He didn’t want to punish innocent people. We know this because the Old Testament gives us several examples of God giving people many chances.

In Genesis 18, God said that He would spare Sodom and Gomorrah if only ten righteous people could be found. As it turned out, there was only one righteous man and his family of four. In the Book of Jonah, the titular Jonah ran from God because he didn’t want God to show mercy to the Ninevites. Jonah eventually did the right thing and, as predicted, God spared the people of Nineveh. In Genesis 15:16, God told Abraham that his descendants would not receive the Promised Land until the “sin of the Amorites has…reached its full measure.”

The Jerichites were on a dangerous path. Only when they had reached the very embodiment of wickedness: bestiality, child sacrifice, idolatry, murder, and other depraved acts of violence did God allow the Israelites to sweep in and take over the land. God had given them every opportunity to repent, He did not permit the Israelites entry until He saw that there was no one left to save. Deuteronomy 9 further clarifies God’s intent. The Israelites were stubborn and sinful themselves; griping and grumbling, rebelling and worshipping idols at every turn. It was not because they were good that they got the land, it’s because other people were worse!

In Deuteronomy 9:5, 6 states that: “It is not because of your righteousness or your integrity that you are going in to take possession of their land: but on account of the wickedness of these nations, the Lord your God will drive them out before you, to accomplish what He swore to your fathers, to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Understand, then, that it is not because of your righteousness that the Lord your God is giving you this good land to possess, for you are a stiff-necked people.”

Ouch. God really hammered home what He thought of the Israelites! Yet no matter how much they openly rebelled against God, God still loved them anyway. God gave the Israelites chance, after chance, after chance to return to Him. He gave other nations those same chances. Unfortunately for the other nations, they never repented or turned away. They continued to sin, and sin terribly. And it wasn’t ordinary sins that we all commit their sins were grotesque.

[CAUTION: The following paragraph may be disturbing. Some people may want to skip past it]

Archaeologists have found Canaanite temples with evidence of temple prostitutes and human sacrifice. Jars have been found dedicated to the god Baal, inside those jars were the remains of children sacrificed to the angry god. Foundation sacrifices have also turned up. Parents would slaughter their children and bury the remains in the walls to ensure good luck in their new home. At dig sites, researchers found that over half of the sacrificial infants were between only one and two months old, suggesting a desired age for those sacrificed. By the time of Joshua, the Canaanites were beyond salvation. To prevent other nations from falling into the same sin and decay, God punished Canaan. The Israelites were weak, often falling prey to temptation, the following books of the Bible confirm how far Israel eventually fell.

The question, then, becomes not: “Why would a just God punish a wicked nation?’ but rather “Why wouldn’t a just God punish such a nation?” The Canaanites sin was spreading like a cancer, it would surely infect the Israelites and everyone else. When one has a gangrenous limb, a wise doctor will remove the limb to keep the rest of body from dying. Jericho was a wicked city within a wicked nation. God does not punish innocent people; he spared Lot from the fall of Sodom and Gomorrah, and he spared Rahab from the doomed walls of Jericho. Had the rest of the nation repented as Rahab did, then God surely would have spared the entire city.


The Israelites Acted Alone

Let us now look to the second option: God had nothing to do with the fall of Jericho.

The Israelites were a band of people who had wandered the desert for forty years. They needed a home, they saw that Jericho was a nice looking place with nice looking land so they went in by themselves and destroyed the city and all its inhabitants. While the first possibility would require an all-powerful God to miraculously destroy Jericho, this option allows for no such divine intervention. Though the Israelites were a small band of people, they crossed the Jordan (with no help from God), and knocked the walls of Jericho down (again, with no help from God), and fought a seven year war which they eventually won.

Through their own cunning and military might, the Israelites fought the Canaanites and won. Stranger things have happened. One need only to look to the history of United Kingdom to see this played out. To this day, the sun still hasn’t set on the British Empire as they continue to own territory in all time zones. Yet despite their power, smaller armies have fought them throughout the centuries and won. Today ISIS and Al Qaeda prove to be a formidable threat despite their lack of sophisticated equipment, formal military training, and money. The most powerful militaries in the world have not succeeded in eliminating these small-time terrorists. So, one can easily see how a small tribe of Israelites, brought up in the desert, could have enough moxie to defeat a far more powerful enemy.


God Gets The Credit

That leaves us with the third possibility: God did not intervene, but the Israelites believed that He did.

The Israelites were a very superstitious people. One couldn’t even sneeze without thinking that God had something to do with it. Disease, poverty, prosperity, success, failure, life, and death were all at the hands of a powerful Creator who had chosen them out of all the nations in the world. God saved them from slavery, led them through the desert, performed miracle after miracle, surely anything else that happened was in His hands. Is it any wonder that they would attribute military victory to this same God, even if He had nothing to do with it?

The Israelites were the underdogs, they should have lost, but they didn’t. They surely would have thought that it was the work of a deity, even if said deity actually opposed the violence. There is certainly historical+ precedent for this. In 1281 Kublai Khan attempted to invade Japan. The Mongols arrived in warships carrying hundreds of thousands of elite warriors, the Japanese were severely outnumbered. They were also prepared. Under the cover of darkness, they used small boats to board the larger Mongol ships. On board they fought small battles and would sometimes even burn the Mongolian vessels.

These attacks were an annoyance the Mongolians, but they were so numerous, it didn’t really have a great effect on them. The Mongols would have eventually conquered Japan but for seemingly divine intervention. On 14 August 1281 a powerful storm rose up as if from nowhere, for two days the tempest raged, obliterating the Mongolian Armada. Out of the thousands of Mongolian warships, only two hundred survived. The Japanese had won an impossible war and credited their victory to the gods. This ‘divine wind,’ or kamikaze, that sprung up had saved them.

It stands to reason that the superstitious Israelites would credit God with their victory, whether or not He was actually involved. It wasn’t just the Battle of Jericho, the Israelites blamed or attributed everything to God. It was common practice in the region at the time to credit a god or gods with victory, it would be stranger if the Israelites didn’t do that. Everybody is the hero in their own story, certainly if the Israelites were at war, then they were the good guys fighting the bad guys. Since they were the good guys, then obviously God would be on their side; the side of righteousness. Whether or not that is what actually happened, is of no real concern. They believed it and they were the ones who wrote the Bible. History is always told by the winners.

God Desires Peace and Love

Which scenario you believe may correspond with how you view the Bible; as the literal word of God, an interpretation of the word of God, or as a book entirely made up by man. One who views the Bible as the literal, infallible word of God is far more likely to believe that God killed the wicked Canaanites. Those who believe the Bible is the inspired word of God are more likely to believe either the first or third scenario. Those who think the Bible is fiction, are more likely to believe scenarios 2 and 3.

Regardless of how you view the Battle of Jericho, one thing remains important: We cannot apply any events in the Book of Joshua to events that happen today. The Israelites were God’s chosen people, it was through them that the Messiah came. With Jesus now here, the contract has been fulfilled, and there are no more races or nations that can claim superiority over another. We are all children of God. After Jesus, the only Promised Land is the one that awaits us in Heaven. Jesus and His disciples were from that Promised Land, and Jesus sent them out into the world, away from said territory.

When Jesus came and conquered, he did not conquer land, nations, or people, He conquered death. Jesus did not come bearing a sword, He preached pacifism. He promised His followers that those who were the peacemakers would not find peace, but would be the children of God. He promised mercy to those who were merciful and promised that those who thirsted for righteousness would be filled. When Peter cut off the ear of the guard who had come to kill Jesus, Jesus healed the guard. Whether or not God intervened in Canaan thousands of years ago, we must remember that that situation does not apply today. God desires peace and mercy, not bloodshed. We should all look forward to that glorious day when we will all beat our swords into plowshares.

*The Book of Judges gives further background and information on what happened following the war and resettlement of the Jews. They weren’t quite as successful maintaining law and order as they were at ordering raids and fighting battles.

** There are likely more that I’m not clever enough to see, if you have any ideas leave them in the comments section.

+Doris Flexner and Stuart Berg Flexner, The Pessimist's Guide to History, page 44, 2007 Harper Collins Publisher

© 2018 Anna Watson


Jay C OBrien from Houston, TX USA on March 14, 2018:

God is indeed greater than we will understand. Therefore do not describe Him. The word "Trinity" is Not in the Bible but is a made up word. It is too specific a description of God and therefore should Not be used.

I do not believe in human or animal sacrifice. I believe we are all responsible for ourselves. Blood sacrifice of one does not affect the sin of another. The sacrifice of Jesus did Not affect our sin. Why do you believe it does?

No, God does Not punish us, ever. We punish ourselves through Condemnation of others (lack of Acceptance) and lack of Forgiveness. I do believe there is a mechanism of learning, like school. School is Not punishment, but may seem so to the child.

Renounce the ideas of: trinity, vicarious sin and a God who punishes.

Anna Watson (author) from Atlanta, GA on March 13, 2018:

Indeed, my friend and brother, God is good. But He acts in ways sometimes that our human limitations will never be able to comprehend. Jesus came to sacrifice Himself for our sins. Not because God demanded sacrifice, but because we did. He taught peace, mercy, justice, and love. The prophets taught much the same; then, as now, people ignore it.

Does that mean that God never punishes? Both the Old and New Testament says that God most assuredly does punish us--the same way any loving father would punish a wayward son or daughter. Jesus came to atone for our sins, it wasn't His job to punish. I do not believe that in the Anno Domini era God will punish His children by taking their life. Nor do I believe that He instructs us to do likewise. "Vengeance is mine, says the Lord" Any kind of modern warfare is wrong. I believe that peace is God's ideal.

In the period before Christ things were different. All of the world was constantly fighting one battle or another and genocide and forced assimilation was often the goal. I'm not only talking about the Israelites, I'm talking about all the civilizations. If the Israelites were defeated by another country they saw it as punishment from God. If they conquered another country they viewed it as a reward from God. Does this make it fact or nearly their perception?

Possibly a little of both. There is too much that my puny mind can't fathom. All I can do is accept that there are things about God that I will never understand. If I could understand them then that may imply that He is a God of my own making.

The Israelites sinned grievously, but their sins were no better and no worse than all the sins of the world at that time. Praise God we have evolved since then.

One last thing to remember: Life is not the goal for us humans. It is a tiny blip in our existence. When we die, as children of God, we will join God in eternity, and that, my beautiful friend, is the ultimate goal. To that end, death may not be punishment. It is tragic when a small child dies. My whole being rebels against it and I'm filled with sadness and anger. But that child is spared a lifetime of suffering and drama and gets to join God in Heaven. In that light, that child has it better than the rest of us.

Jay C OBrien from Houston, TX USA on March 12, 2018:

"Your method of determining what to take as scripture simply allows you to make a god of your own liking."

No, it means God is Good, Totally Good and always has been. Raise your thinking about God. Stop following the teachings of the Rabbis and follow Jesus.

WWJD? Would Jesus have gone around killing women, children and animals? If you think so, you have serious emotional issues.

Anna Watson (author) from Atlanta, GA on March 12, 2018:

People if the Book,

Not at all, I hope that people are able to learn from this discussion.

B A Johnson on March 11, 2018:

Jay C OBrien,

The God of the Bible IS jealous - but He's also patient, he IS vengeful and full of wrath - but He is also merciful. That is the very soul of the Gospel - that Christ, the perfect son of God, took our sins upon himself and suffered the penalty for them on the cross, satisfying God's wrath and fulfilling His perfect mercy.

Your method of determining what to take as scripture simply allows you to make a god of your own liking.

"I prefer my god to be x, therefore scripture is only that which affirms x." You may find that god more comforting and palatable, but he won't save you.

If you have ever lied, ever stolen, ever lusted, or hated, or put anything in this life ahead of the worship of the One True God, then God will see that those sins are punished: either you will pay the price or Jesus Christ will on the cross, there is no third way.

(Miss Watson, thank you for allowing us this conversation on your article comment section, and thank you for taking the time to write this! I am done now! :))

Jay C OBrien from Houston, TX USA on March 11, 2018:

You will find what you seek. If you seek a Jealous, Vengeful, Wrathful God, that is what you read as scripture.

If you believe in loving your fellow man; forgiveness and acceptance you will accept that as scripture.

What you take as scripture is a Projection of yourself.

Choose what you believe to be scripture.

If someone seeks out reading material describing their God/Ideal as Evil, they have emotional problems.

Stop being Jewish.

B A Johnson on March 11, 2018:

Jay C OBrien,

Jesus constantly pointed to the Old Testament for his authority, how could you say both "follow Jesus' teachings" and condemn adhering to the Old Testament as madness? If we obey a god of our own making we are both idolatrous and insane, but the God of the Bible is not our own design, we are His.

Is the Jesus of Matthew 25 the same Jesus you say would never harm people? Is His eternal judgement somehow less repugnant to you than a temporal one? And consider Ananias and Saphira, were they not punished temporally for their sins?

Does Romans 3 not already demonstrate the guilt of the Canaanite women and children, as well as the whole world?

Jay C OBrien from Houston, TX USA on March 11, 2018:

Love one another as I have loved you.

Forgive them for they know not what they do.

Condemn not.

Do to others as you would have them do unto you.

Jesus, His ways are better than our ways. Follow His teachings.

Which flood do you wish to discuss?

Tony Muse from Texas, USA on March 10, 2018:

The New Testament is literally filled with references to the wicked being destroyed.

Philippians 1:28 in no way alarmed by your opponents--which is a sign of destruction for them, but of salvation for you, and that too, from God.

Romans 9:22 What if God, although willing to demonstrate His wrath and to make His power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath prepared for destruction?

Philippians 3:19 whose end is destruction, whose god is their appetite, and whose glory is in their shame, who set their minds on earthly things.

2 Thessalonians 1:9 These will pay the penalty of eternal destruction, away from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His power,

2 Peter 2:3 and in their greed they will exploit you with false words; their judgment from long ago is not idle, and their destruction is not asleep.

2 Peter 3:7 But by His word the present heavens and earth are being reserved for fire, kept for the day of judgment and destruction of ungodly men.

Anna Watson (author) from Atlanta, GA on March 10, 2018:

B A,

I agree. His ways are not our ways and there are some things that we will never understand.

I try to be careful with my own interpretations lest I end up creating God in my own image.

Anna Watson (author) from Atlanta, GA on March 10, 2018:

Jay C.

I'm curious as to your interpretation of the flood.

Jay C OBrien from Houston, TX USA on March 10, 2018:

1. There are a couple of layers to address, but the short answer is yes, if a perfect God commanded His servants to carry out His judgement, then obeying could not be in any way imperfect.

1.a. Tell this to a mental health professional. Delusional people believe their delusions.

2. The long answer is: Yes, for two basic reasons, although the New Testament makes it clear that God has not and will not give any such commandment since the crucifixion of Christ.

2.a. God has not and will not give any such commandment. WWJD? What would Jesus do? Jesus Christ would never harm people and The Christ does not change.

3. The first reason is you are presuming an innocence in those women and children that does not exist....

3.a. Subservient women, children and animals Are innocent. It is up to you to prove otherwise.

B A Johnson on March 09, 2018:

Jay C OBrien,

There are a couple of layers to address, but the short answer is yes, if a perfect God commanded His servants to carry out His judgement, then obeying could not be in any way imperfect.

The long answer is: Yes, for two basic reasons, although the New Testament makes it clear that God has not and will not give any such commandment since the crucifixion of Christ.

The first reason is you are presuming an innocence in those women and children that does not exist (cf for instance Romans 3, Psalm 51) [although there is Biblical reason to believe those children will not be held accountable for their sins, in which case their early deaths were a divine mercy, but that's another matter]

The second reason is that all of humanity is under judgement due to our "federal head" - Adam (cf Romasn 5). God has and does judge nations and peoples for the crimes of their leaders, largely because we are not under any real obligation to obey them in sin, it would be better to die refusing to be complicit in the crimes of Cana than to live in that sin.

All that being said, God in mercy and love has chosen to punish our crimes through the blood of his perfect Son, and so through faith in Christ’s sacrifice our sins are forgiven. For those who do not repent and believe, God is storing up His wrath for the last day (Romans 2:5). God will not command anyone to enact His judgment now, because for those who believe in Jesus Christ the price has already been paid, for those who do not – the price will be paid in the fullness of time.

Jay C OBrien from Houston, TX USA on March 09, 2018:

B A Johnson: are you saying it is OK to kill subservient women and children because you think God tells you to?

B A Johnson on March 08, 2018:

Very well written,

I would add that you hit the nail on the head with your observation "the Canaanites sin was spreading like a cancer, it would surely infect the Israelites,"

God's commandments to drive out and destroy the Canaanite nations were given for the same purpose as the Ritual Law given to Moses - physically and spiritually distinguishing and preserving Abraham's line in order to fulfill the promise to Abraham through the Messiah.

God can seem cruel and foolish when we fail to see that all things point toward Christ, the savior of sinful man.

Jay C OBrien from Houston, TX USA on March 08, 2018:

So, what happened in Joshua? The way I see it there are three main possible answers.**

1) God did it. God orchestrated the destruction of Jericho with direct orders to kill every living thing.

1.a.If someone actually believes in a God or Ideal who would order genocide, they must be mentally ill. Raise your thinking. Killing women and children is no way to protect women and children.

2) God had nothing to do with it and the Jews invaded another nation of their own volition.

2.a. This is possible and it would absolve God of atrocities written in ancient books. But then, why did the Israelites commit atrocities and then write about it?

3) The Israelites mistakenly believed that God ordered the slaughter."

3.a. Why would anyone believe in a God who ordered genocide? I think there may have been a mistaken identity. Perhaps the Israelites mistook a person to be God or an angel. Please see the following.


What do you think?

Anna Watson (author) from Atlanta, GA on March 08, 2018:

Hi Tony,

Thank you for your kind words.

For any third party reading these comments, Judges 1, and Deuteronomy 9 and 20 give the events in Joshua a little more context.

God really tried to keep the Israelites free from outsiders' negative influences, but He was never really successful at it. The Israelites seemed more susceptible to idol worship than othe sins, and unfortunately, the Canaanites had that in spades. Judges 1:19-22 makes their failure to take the allotted territory seem more like a military failure than a spiritual one. But then, if God was really on their side, and they on His, they should have been able to conquer it. (So you don't have to dig up your Bible, it says that the hill people had iron chariots and Jerusalem was impregnable.) Either way, enough people, were left to tempt the Israelites into Baal and Ashtoreth worship. They really never could seem to shake that whole idolatry thing until after the second temple was built.

Lest I seem to harsh on the Israelites, modern day people are just as much at risk for peer pressure and idol worship. We may not sacrifice loved ones and livestock to our idols (thank God!) but we allow ourselves to be led astray by them nonetheless.

And yes, my brother, we are all chosen now. Like the Israelites we weren't chosen for our good deeds or faithfulness, but it was by Grace. Hallelujah, we are, as you said, God's possession.

Tony Muse from Texas, USA on March 08, 2018:

Excellent article! If Israel had completely wiped out the evil nations like God had commanded, then they "might" not have had the issues with following after pagan gods throughout their history.

There will be some who take issue with your statement about who God's chosen people are, or are not, today. But Peter made it clear that WE are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, holy nation, a people for God's own possession. In other word's, it is those who believe upon His Son that are the "apple of God's eye", no matter what their race might be.

Blessings to you!

Anna Watson (author) from Atlanta, GA on March 07, 2018:

Hi Tamara,

Thank you for your kind words.

Our human minds are incapable of fully understanding a powerful God. He didn't explain to Job why He allowed him to suffer, and He doesn't explain it to us when things go wrong. You're right that He owes us nothing. We just need to trust that He knows what He's doing.

Tamarajo on March 07, 2018:

I think you covered it all Anna. The specifics of the depravities go unmentioned in the Biblical account. The archeological finds lend much to understanding the event. I like the fact that God doesn't feel the need to justify Himself with those details in order to meet man's approval. He expects us to know and believe that He is righteous, just, merciful, and good. When He said its wickedness had increased that's what He meant and it ought to be assumed that it was necessary for all of those reasons. He didn't owe us an explanation. But gave an abbreviated one anyways.

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