Curious Origins of Nursery Rhymes: Jack and Jill

Jack and Jill

A mainstay of children's rhyme the world over is the silly little ditty of Jack and Jill, who went up a hill to fetch a pail of water. Now if you are being a scientific pedant, you will know that water is usually found along the syncline of geological rock formations - that is down the hill rather than the anticline i.e., up the hill. tch. tch. But let's not quibble on matters of teaching kids bad geology.

As we learnt from the canon of Mother Goose's melody, the enduring nature of these nursery rhymes come from the simplicity, the ease with which they can be memorised and their bouncy melodies.

No one quite knows how or when Jack and Jill actually came to be. There are many who are happy to speculate and mythologise. Let us separate some facts from the resultant fiction.

Jack and Jill - the first three stanzas

Jack and Jill went up the hill

To fetch a pail of water.

Jack fell down and broke his crown,

And Jill came tumbling after

Up Jack got, and home did trot,

As fast as he could caper;

To old Dame Dob, who patched his nob

With vinegar and brown paper

(And went to bed and bound his head

With vinegar and brown paper)- later versions

Then Jill came in,and she did grin,

To see Jack's paper plaster;

Her mother whipt her, across her knee,

For laughing at Jack's disaster.

(Mother vexed did whip her next

For causing Jack's disaster)- later versions

The Verse

The first verse is the most popular and familiar one. However, there are versions of the Jack and Jill poem that have 15 stanzas dating back to the 19th century. As someone clearly felt the need to tell 'Jack and Jill : the full untold story.'

The 19th century chapbook versions have the three stanzas (shown on the right) as the beginning of the Jack and Jill melody. There are mild variations to the second and third stanzas in 20th century versions - given in brackets.

Did you know that the very early woodcuts pictured Jack and 'Gill' - two boys. Somewhere along the line 'Gil' the boy became 'Jill' the girl, to add some frisson on the climb up to the hill, presumably.

The name Jack is an archetypal everyman used in many stories ( Jack and the beanstalk, Jack the lad) and the name 'Jill' was used to represent 'a girl next door' or a sweet heart.

The rhyme itself is a quatrain using the rhyming form 'abcb' with a rising and falling rhythmic melody.

The use of vinegar and brown paper to bind cuts and bruises was a common practice in middle ages. No one could actually account for the meaning behind the story and in all likelihood it was a nonsense rhyme that has endured because of its simplicity.

There are many speculations as to the origin of the 'Jack and Jill' story and its metaphorical excursions.

Hjuki and Bil
Hjuki and Bil

Hjuki and Bil

There is an Old Norse myth that tells us the story of the Moon, Mâni, who stole two children from earth, Hjuki and Bil, as they were collecting water from the well, Byrgir, in their bucket, Sœgr, suspended from their pole, Simul. The Moon as an archetypal kidnapper of children sounds eerily ominous and was perhaps told to keep children from wandering about at night.

Hjuki in Norse is pronounced Juki which could've eventually become Jack. Jill may have replaced Bil for the sake of alliteration. It was suggested by S Baring Gould (in his book about myths and legends) that this story may have eventually birthed the rhyme of Jack and Jill. It still doesn't account for the tumbling down and the broken crown.

There is a further twist to the tale. Hjuki actually comes from the Norse verb Jakka which means to pile up or increase. Bil comes from Bila which is to fade, dissolve or fall apart. Is it likely that the old tale is actually about the cyclical waxing and waning of the moon? The fetching of water may have been a direct link to the Moon's influence on the tides...

Mary Tudor, sister of Henry the VIII
Mary Tudor, sister of Henry the VIII
Cardinal Wolsey ( on horseback)
Cardinal Wolsey ( on horseback)

Royal Connections

Katherine Elwes Thomas, wrote a book called the 'Real Personages of Mother Goose'. She points out that the original woodcut illustration in 'Mother Goose's Melody' represent Jack and Gill as two boys and the most rhymes were secret insults to popular figures or royal personages of the day.

She believes that Jack and Gill dates back to Tudor times and is a secret insult to Cardinal Wolsey ( Jack) and Bishop Tarbes ( Gill). The two famously went on a trip to France ( went up the Hill) to secure the marriage of Mary Tudor, then 18 years of age and was the young, beautiful sister of Henry VIII. This was to the aging 53 year old King of France, Louis XII. This plan was hatched by Cardinal Wolsey to secure peace with France and to appease Henry VIII who saw his sister as a useful tool in his European alliances.

The wedding went ahead and Wolsey and Tarbes were initially successful in their mission. Sadly, the ailing Louis XII - who had produced no heirs until that time- died within 3 months of the marriage ( apparently due to his exertions in the bedchamber!) leaving the young Mary a widow. Mary had already fallen in love with Charles Brandon, the Duke of Suffolk. Despite Henry VIII's desire to use his sister as a further negotiating tool for another alliance, Mary and Brandon were married in secret. The enraged Henry wanted to execute Brandon for treason. However, Wolsey intervened and secured a pardon for the man.

Until then Cardinal Thomas Wolsey was the most powerful man in the British Kingdom, as Henry VIII's trusted aide and Lord Chancellor. Perhaps the intervention to secure Brandon's pardon and the subsequent fallout with the King is hinted as 'Jack fell down and broke his crown' as he fell out favour with the tempestuous monarch.

There are those who believe that Jack and Jill refer to King Louis XVI, beheaded in 1793 ( fell down and broke his crown) followed by his queen Marie Antoinette who came tumbling after. However, the printing of the rhyme predates these events and lays doubts to the claim.

The Imperial Measure of 'Jack' ( Half Pint) marked by a crown on this pewter mug.
The Imperial Measure of 'Jack' ( Half Pint) marked by a crown on this pewter mug.
King Charles I
King Charles I

How a Half Pint broke its crown

Desperate for more money in his coffers, King Charles I suggested a reform to raise taxes on liquid measures. His proposal to raise the tax on the half pint measures ( then called a 'Jack') were blocked by parliament. King Charles I pondered on his failure and quickly ordered the nation to reduce the volume of the half pint. In those days (and even now) the half pint line is indicated as an imperial measure with the 'crown' symbol. By knocking this crown down a notch, Charles managed to get more taxes without ever having to raise them!

Thus the half -pint Jack, broke its 'crown'. The quarter pint measure was called the 'Gill'. Subsequent to the volume reduction of half a pint or 'Jack' the 'Gill' was also reduced ( came tumbling after).

Perhaps the rhyme was coined by the angry drinkers of ale, who were getting less of a pint for their buck.

Jack and Jill sign at Kilmersdon
Jack and Jill sign at Kilmersdon
Sign at Kilmersdon
Sign at Kilmersdon

Kilmersdon, 'home' of Jack and Jill Hill.

A quaint Somerset village, Kimersdon, has staked his claim to being the home of ' Jack and Jill' Hill. According to local legend dating back to 1697, the rhyme is about a local spinster who got pregnant by her mysterious lover. The man, Jack, apparently died of a rockfall when climbing a local hill and the poor maid died of childbirth soon after.

The village proudly claims to be the 'home of Jack and Jill Hill' and even celebrates its status all over town. No one is quite sure of the veracity of this tale but are happy to go along.

A local hill has been identified as the 'Jack and Jill Hill' and milestones have been placed to outline the tale of Jack and Jill's ascent and unceremonious descent.

Click thumbnail to view full-size
The Jack and Jill Well, KilmersdonBottom of the HillTop of the Hill
The Jack and Jill Well, Kilmersdon
The Jack and Jill Well, Kilmersdon
Bottom of the Hill
Bottom of the Hill
Top of the Hill
Top of the Hill

Jack and Jill in Shakespeare

"...Our wooing doth not end like an old play; Jack hath not Jill"

Love's Labours Lost, Act V: Scene II

"...In your waking shall be shown. Jack shall have Jill. Nought shall go ill.The man shall have his mare again, and all shall be well.'

A Midsummer Nights Dream, Act III: Scene II

The Immortal Jack and Jill

Thus concludes our tale of Jack and Jill. They have endured time and much transition. who would've thought that the title ' Jack and Jill' that was used in an Elizabethan court comedy in 1567 would continue through time ( If anyone mentions the Adam Sandler abomination from 2011, I will personally come and find you).

The enduring nature of the names and the rhyme is something that is hard to quantify and predict. When James William Elliott composed the melody in 1870 and compiled it under his 'National Nursery rhymes and Nursery songs' he definitely wouldn't have thought about the multitude of you tube versions.

There are many rude variations of the Jack and Jill rhyme, but in the interest of innocent children who may come to this page as a way of research, I shall not stoop to mentioning them here.

Hope you enjoyed the curious origins of Jack and Jill. Come back soon for another rhyme and its associated tales.

© 2014 Mohan Kumar

More by this Author

Comments 23 comments

WillStarr profile image

WillStarr 2 years ago from Phoenix, Arizona

Excellent as always! The origins of these old rhymes are fascinating.

Jenn-Anne profile image

Jenn-Anne 2 years ago

An interesting read - thanks so much for sharing!

Docmo profile image

Docmo 2 years ago from UK Author

@WillStarr- thanks very much- glad you enjoyed this !

@Jenn-Anne- much appreciated. Thanks for reading and leaving your comment.

Ruchira profile image

Ruchira 2 years ago from United States

didn't know this...thanks for the research doc.

voted up as interesting!

fpherj48 profile image

fpherj48 2 years ago from Beautiful Upstate New York

Docmo....Wonderful info about the children's rhymes we all knew by heart at a tender age. It's probably just as well we weren't privy back then, to the "politics" involved! LOL....One good turn deserves another.....I have a gift for you too

Daisy and Pigsty crawled up the Hill

To fetch a pail of white lightnin

Pig Sty got drunk & Daisy sat still

Til Pig Sty did somthin frightnin !!

Peace & love.....Paula.....UP+++

Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 2 years ago from Orange County (Southern California)

Mohan (Docmo),

I'm so glad you are continuing your nursery rhyme series. I enjoy reading articles from which I learn something new. I, of course, recited Jack and Jill many years ago, but I didn't know anything about the rhyme.

It's obvious you put a lot of time into researching and writing this Hub. Thank you for that.

Gypsy Rose Lee profile image

Gypsy Rose Lee 2 years ago from Riga, Latvia

Voted up and interesting. Fascinating about Jack and Jill. Enjoyed reading this and passing it on.

Thief12 profile image

Thief12 2 years ago from Puerto Rico

What a cool hub. I've always been intrigued by the dark nature of a lot of "children" stories and nursery rhymes. Great analysis.

Minnetonka Twin profile image

Minnetonka Twin 2 years ago from Minnesota

That was really fun to read. Who knew there were so many stories about Jack and Jill. I found it really interesting and will love to share it.

DreamerMeg profile image

DreamerMeg 2 years ago from Northern Ireland

That was really interesting!

Eiddwen profile image

Eiddwen 2 years ago from Wales

A great read and thanks for sharing.


hodamohamed profile image

hodamohamed 2 years ago from Cairo

That was really interesting!

Very cool

mackyi 2 years ago

Awesome! a very good memorable!

Cynthianne profile image

Cynthianne 2 years ago

Very interesting! Thank you for sharing.

Thelma Alberts profile image

Thelma Alberts 2 years ago from Germany

What a very interesting hub! I enjoyed reading it. Thanks for sharing.

Anne Harrison profile image

Anne Harrison 2 years ago from Australia

Absolutely fascinating! Voted up, and thank you

Docmo profile image

Docmo 2 years ago from UK Author

@Ruchira - thanks for your visit - glad you found it interesting .

@Paula- dear Daisy May delighted that you could pop over and give me a gift that keeps on giving! Much love from Pig Sty.

@ Daisy - thanks so much for your support !

Docmo profile image

Docmo 2 years ago from UK Author

@ Gypsy Rose- thank you very much for your visit and comments!

@ thief12 - thank you. Glad you enjoys this.

@minnentonka- I too was fascinated by the number of tales around the rhymes. Thank you for your visit.

@DreamerMeg- thank you !

@ Eiddwen- much appreciated!

Docmo profile image

Docmo 2 years ago from UK Author

@hodamohammed- much appreciated- thanks!

@mackyi- thank you!

@cynthiane- much appreciated- thanks!

@Thelma- glad you enjoyed this!

@Anne Harrison/ very kind - thank you so much!

b. Malin profile image

b. Malin 2 years ago

Hi Docmo,

So Jack & Jill were quite the couple... and who knew there were more verses...and so much "Tribute" to them! The Video was cute too.

Hackslap profile image

Hackslap 2 years ago from Sydney, Australia

Cool history lesson about what probably is the 'signature' nursery rhyme for any kid who's familiar with the English language ..voted up!

KMSplumeau profile image

KMSplumeau 21 months ago

Great article! I'd love to see Jack and Jill Hill in Somerset someday. Voted up and sharing!

michael 15 months ago

Actually, I believe you have your fluid measurements reversed. A Gill is 5 fluid ounces (or 1/2 cup), and a Jack (or Jackpot) is 2.5 fluid ounces (or 1/4 cup). Thanks!

    Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account.

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No HTML is allowed in comments, but URLs will be hyperlinked. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites.

    Click to Rate This Article